He used his time to make sure the the Byzantine empire would prosper. Name: _____ Date: _____ Per: _____ SSWH4 Analyze the impact of the Byzantine and Mongol empires. In 391 and 392, he issued a series of edicts essentially banning pagan religion. In the early 500s, Justin—a high-ranking military commander in Constantinople (now Istanbul)—took Justinian under his wing. Can we reconcile Procopius’s presentation of Justinian and Theodora with the undoubted accomplishments of their reign? When Justinian was crowned in 527, he named as co-regent his young wife Theodora. Justinian created a set of laws called the Justinian Code. The Hagia Sophiacan also be seen in the background. When Leo died in 474, Zeno and Ariadne’s younger son succeeded to the throne as Leo II, with Zeno as regent. Justinian was able to figure out what the Roman Laws meant and he also focused on the existing laws. Justinian and Theodora: Arguably the greatest leader in the history of the Byzantine Empire, Justinian was the Byzantine emperor between 527 and 560. He dreamed of reconquering the lands of the Western Roman Empire and ruling a single, united Roman Empire from his seat in Constantinople. Like her husband, she is a saint in the Orthodox Church, commemorated on November 14. By the time the war was over, Italy, once one of the most prosperous lands in the ancient world, was wrecked. Identify Emperor Justinian's achievements during his reign. She famously championed women’s rights and mitigated the ongoing persecution of the miaphysite sect. G. Bell, 1905-07. When Justinian was crowned in 527, he named as co-regent his young wife Theodora. A few days later Justin died from natural causes, after reigning nine years , and Justinian in conjunction with Theodora became sole monarch. Who eventually defeated the Byzantine Empire? She speaks Byzantine Greek. Th… She had laws passed that prohibited forced prostitution and closed brothels. His name at birth was Petrus Sabbatius. Utilizing the assistance of his strong, wealthy wife Theodora, Justinian made the leap to expand his empire in the west. The Hagia Sophia was a staggering work of Byzantine architecture, intended to awe all who set foot in the church. Bibliography and Links. Her most remarkable accomplishment was she gave women rights. Still, Justinian kept the empire from collapse. Not only did he conquer Italy, but the leader of the Byzantine Empire also took control of much of the North African coast. The state of the empire in 395 may be described in terms of the outcome of Constantine’s work. With a strong measure of law and order established, rebuilding this crucial city became possible. The goal of this activity is to determine, overall, whether Justinian was a good emperor for the Byzantine Justinian also undertook many important projects at home. A History of the Later Roman Empire from the Death of Theodosius I to the Death of Justinian (a.d. 395-565). It was the largest church in the world for nearly a thousand years, and for the rest of Byzantine history it was the center of Christian worship in Constantinople. Justinian also systematized the Roman legal code that served as the basis for law in the Byzantine Empire. Sole leader of an empire. Belisarius defeated the Ostrogoths in a series of battles and reclaimed Rome. After a plague reduced the Byzantine population, they lost Rome and Italy to the Ostrogoths, and several important cities to the Persians. Justinian I, also known as ‘Justinian the Great’ and ‘Saint Justinian the Great’, was a Byzantine (East Roman) Emperor and one of the most influential rulers in the western history. Justinian was forced to establish a humiliating 50-year peace treaty with them in 561 CE. With iron-handed control and at a ruinous cost, Justinian eventually regained almost all the territory of the old empire. Because of Emperor Justinian, the Roman laws are the base of our government and the government of other countries. The riots were put down, and Justinian set about rebuilding the city on a grander scale. Theodora's Achievements. Justinian did not succeed in reclaiming all of that territory, but he did make considerable gains. For example, he greatly respected the exceptional, deeply political mind of his wife Theodora. it was nevertheless true that Justinian ordered several assassinations, as well as waging war to lay claim to former Roman territory. Justinian, or Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus, was arguably the most important ruler of the Eastern Roman Empire. Theodora participated in Justinian’s legal and spiritual reforms, and her involvement in the increase of the rights of women was substantial. There is no question that one of his most significant accomplishments was enjoying a reign that took full advantage of those around him. The Hagia Sophia. Justinian and Theodora panels At the foot of the apse side walls are two famous mosaic panels, completed in 547. The end of the Western Empire is sometimes dated to 476, early in Zeno’s reign, when the Germanic Roman general, Odoacer, deposed the titular Western Emperor Romulus Augustulus, but declined to replace him with another puppet. The dynastic principle was established so firmly that the emperor who died in that year, Theodosius I, could bequeath the imperial office jointly to his sons, Arcadius in the East and Honorius in the West. Theodora (Greek: Θεοδώρα) (c. 500 - June 28 548), was empress of the Byzantine Empire and the wife of Emperor Justinian I. Introducing a Justinian version of Roman Law, Justinian was able to bring down the frequency of the riots. She was 15 years his junior and his opposite in nearly every … Both Justinian and Theodora recognized the importance of religious issues. Byzantine Emperor Justinian built the Greek Orthodox Church of the Holy Wisdom of God, the Hagia Sophia, which was completed in only four and a half years (532 CE-537 CE). On the other hand, ‘Secret History’ by the same historian, shows her as a shrewd and mean queen who used her sexuality to control the emperor. built the Hagia Sophia, rebuilt roads Who is Theodora and what did she do? Belisarius, who acted as Justinian’s general, also played a significant role in the success of Justinian in this regard. Procopius, about A.D. 565. As a result, Justinian had many great achievements throughout his lifetime that would effect the world to come. The plague wiped out huge numbers of the empire’s population, leaving villages empty and crops unharvested. https://www.boundless.com/world-history/textbooks/boundless-world-history-textbook/, Discuss the accomplishments and failures of Emperor Justinian the Great. Imperial authority was assumed by Justinian and Theodora three days before the Feast, a time when one is not allowed to greet any of one's friends or to wish him good day. After the Western Roman Empire collapsed under the threat of Germanic invaders, Byzantine remained intact. The book portrays the empress as a very strong and dominant personality. This massive church was built as a dedication to Christianity, and it was a stunning accomplishment for the emperor during his reign. Regain land that was lost to Rome. The Romans had attempted to systematize the legal code in the fifth century but had not completed the effort. High taxes left the people of Constantinople deeply unhappy. Leo I managed to free himself from the influence of the non-Orthodox chief by supporting the rise of the Isaurians, a semi-barbarian tribe living in southern Anatolia. The army was also afflicted, and the Ostrogoths were able to effectively regain Italy in 546 CE, through guerrilla warfare against the Byzantine occupiers. It was around this time that Theodora caught the eye of Justinian, who was serving under his uncle, the emperor Justin I. Justinian was attracted to Theodora’s intelligence and beauty, and made her his mistress, after which he married her. Even now, it is universally acknowledged as one of the greatest buildings in the world. It could certainly be one of main keys to his success, during a reign that lasted for several decades. Emperor Justinian. He Helped Put Constantinople Back Together. 50 You may find it helpful to remove this page as we will be working on it for awhile. Under the rule of Justinian, many historians would make the argument that Byzantine flourished. As the emperor of the Byzantine Empire, Justinian accomplished a great deal, over the course of a reign that extended from 527, all the way up to 565. Theodora's unswerving will, superior intelligence, and acute political acumen lead many modern-day historians to the conclusion that it was she, rather than Justinian, who ruled Byzantium. THEODORA, the wife of the emperor Justinian (q.v. Narses finally defeated the Ostrogoths and drove them back out of Italy. The first rights were that women can own land. She was the wife of Justinian, the emperor of the Byzantine Empire. One of Constantine’s successors, Theodosius I (379-395), was the last emperor to rule both the Eastern and Western halves of the empire. A terrible plague swept through the empire, killing Theodora and almost killing him. Her mind was firmly and perpetually fixed upon inhumanity. From 'The Secret History' by Procopius HAVING completed our portrait of Justinian, let us turn now to Theodora. Theodora was a woman of humble origins who married Justinian, also born of peasant stock, who ruled Byzantium from 527 to 565. Much of Constantinople was burned down early in Justinian’s reign after a series of riots called the Nika riots, in 532 CE, when angry racing fans became enraged at Justinian for arresting two popular charioteers (though this was really just the last straw for a populace increasingly angry … Although not a universally popular emperor, Justinian did more in one lifetime to restore the Eastern Roman Empire to its former glory than any other ruler. ), was born probably in Constantinople, though according to some in Cyprus, in the early years of the 6th century, and died in 547. If the mark of a successful emperor is determined by how much land they conquer, then there is no question that Justinian had a rule that was significant. On the right is a mosaic depicting the East Roman Emperor Justinian I, clad in Tyrian purple with a golden halo, standing next to court officials, Bishop Maximian, palatinae guards and deacons. By 540 CE, most of Italy was in Justinian’s hands. His reign was a successful one for a number of reasons. His successor, Marcian, refused to continue to pay the tribute, but Attila had already diverted his attention to the west. Byzantine merchants traded not only all over the Mediterranean region, but also throughout regions to the east. After his death in 453, the Hunnic Empire collapsed, and many of the remaining Huns were often hired as mercenaries by Constantinople. Along with her spouse, Theodora is a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church and in the Oriental Orthodox Church, … Hagia Sophia. 2 vols. She also expanded the rights of women in divorce and property ownership, instituted the death penalty for rape, forbade exposure of unwanted infants, gave mothers some guardianship rights over their children, and forbade the killing of a wife who committed adultery. Justinian I was born of peasant parents. They were inseparable from the important political issues of the day. He sent another army to conquer Spain. Some sources mention her as empress regnant, with Justinian I as her co-regent. Justinian met his wife Theodora, a circus dancer, during his consulate.However, the Byzantine Law prohibited emperor candidates from marrying non-noble women. Law system which became the basis of modern day law systems. Dover Publications, 1958. Sitemap. Pagan festivals and sacrifices were banned, as was access to all pagan temples and places of worship. Empress Theodora represented in mosaic at San Vitale, Ravenna. JUSTINIAN I. We come to know about Theodora’s life from historical documents like that of Procopius’s ‘The Wars of Justinian’. She was 15 years his junior and his opposite in nearly every way. Theodora I is the leader of the Byzantines in Civilization V: Gods & Kings. In fact, they were so unhappy, they rioted quite frequently. This code said that the emperor made all of the laws and interpreted the laws as well. The western conquests began in 533, as Justinian sent his general, Belisarius, to reclaim the former province of Africa from the Vandals, who had been in control since 429 with their capital at Carthage. According to Procopius, our chief, but by no means a trustworthy authority for her life, she was the daughter of Acacius, a bear-feeder of the amphitheatre at Constantinople to the Green … Justinian was the most famous ruler of the Byzantine Empire, the name for that which remained in the East of the Roman Empire after the fall of the West. These included areas around the Black Sea, the Red Sea, and the Indian Ocean. She converted to an early form of Christianity. The Hagia Sophia quickly established itself as one of the most extraordinary marvels in the eastern world. Belisarius successfully defeated the Vandals and claimed Africa for Constantinople. Throughout the fifth century, various invading armies overran the Western Empire but spared the east. The Justinian … Hence Justinian, who wanted to reconquer the Latin West, stoutly defended the orthodox position in such theological debates as those concerning the nature of Christ. His relationship with his wife, Empress Theodora… It is now a mosque in the Muslim Istanbul. One of the secrets to his success was the fact that he knew to respect the potential that others could bring to a given situation. She was one of the most influential and powerful of the Byzantine empresses. Effect on the Modern World. ( Public Domain ) Courting the Heir to the Empire . Furthermore, Justinian even got as far as Spain. The grand church of "Holy Wisdom… Next, Justinian sent him to take Italy from the Ostrogoths in 535 CE. He took the Roman name “Justinianus” from his uncle, Justin. Considered by some scholars to be the last great Roman emperor and the first great Byzantine emperor, Justinian fought to reclaim Roman territory and left a lasting impact on architecture and law. Byzantine Emperor Justinian Facts Byzantine depiction of Justinian in Ravenna, Italy Byzantine Love Story: Justinian and Theodora. Complex theological issues dominated the lives of even the common people. Theodosius II further fortified the walls of Constantinople, leaving the city impervious to most attacks; the walls were not breached until 1204. Another great achievement for the Byzantine empire is cultural diffusion. Though her background was considered disreputable, she married Justinian, who became emperor, allowing her to wield considerable influence. 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